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Kennel Cough in Dogs

Signs, Diagnosis and Treatment of Kennel Cough

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About Kennel Cough
Kennel cough is also known as infectious tracheobronchitis (it has also been called Bordatellosis or Bordatella). It is a highly contagious respiratory infection affecting the airways. Kennel cough is commonly contracted in situations where dogs are confined in close contact, such as kennels, shelters, veterinary clinics, and dog shows. Stress, poor ventilation, and temperature and humidity extremes are also thought to increase the susceptibility of dogs to kennel cough.

Causes of Kennel Cough
Kennel cough is a complex disease that is caused by a number of infectious agents including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus 2, canine distemper virus, and a bacteria called Bordetella bronchiseptica. Other viruses and bacteria may also be involved, although their roles are less well understood. These viruses and bacteria can act alone or together to cause kennel cough.

Usually, kennel cough is not serious, but some dogs can become seriously ill from kennel cough infection (especially very young, very old, or immunocompromised dogs). In any case, whenever a dog is coughing, a vet visit is highly recommended to sort out possible diagnoses and treatment options.

Signs of Kennel Cough

Common

  • Cough, usually a dry hacking cough (sometimes described as a goose honk cough). The severity and type of couch can be variable however.
  • Retching and gagging (as if something stuck in throat)
  • and expulsion of white foamy fluid

More serious

  • Nasal discharge
  • Lethargy
  • Loss of appetite

While a coughing dog should see a vet for evaluation, if lethargy or loss of appetite accompany the cough, see your vet immediately as this may indicate serious complications such as pneumonia.

The symptoms usually appear about 5-10 days after exposure to an infected dog, and can last for up to 3 weeks, though symptoms may improve considerably within a few days. It is thought that dogs can remain contagious for several weeks after symptoms clear up.

Diagnosis of Kennel Cough
Uncomplicated cases of kennel cough can often be diagnosed based on history (i.e. exposure to new dogs), symptoms, and physical examination. If some of the more serious signs such as nasal discharge, lethargy, and loss of appetite are present, further testing such as blood counts and radiographs (x-rays) may be recommended.

Treatment of Kennel Cough
Your vet will recommend treatment based on the severity of illness in your dog. Many dogs recover without treatment, so your dog may simply require monitoring to ensure the symptoms are not worsening. For dogs with severe coughs, a cough suppressant may be prescribed, and in come cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to combat bacterial infections. If your dog has symptoms such as fever, lethargy and loss of appetite, more intensive treatment will be recommended.

Pressure from a collar can exacerbate kennel cough symptoms, so switching to a harness is recommended for the duration of the illness.

Prevention of Kennel Cough
Both injectable and intranasal (administered in the nose) vaccines are available to protect against kennel. Your veterinarian can recommend an appropriate vaccination schedule based on your dog's situation and risk factors for kennel cough. The vaccinations should be given at least a week or two in advance of situations where your dog is at risk for contracting kennel cough to be most effective. Most boarding facilities require vaccination against kennel cough (along with the routine annual vaccinations).

Please Note: this article is intended for informational purposes only. If your pet is showing any signs of illness, please consult a veterinarian as quickly as possible.

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