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What are the signs seen with antifreeze toxicity in dogs and cats?

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Radiator Antifreeze by evelynishere on Flickr

Radiator Antifreeze

by evelynishere on Flickr
Question: What are the signs seen with antifreeze toxicity in dogs and cats?
Answer:

Acute cases of antifreeze toxicity (when an animal consumes antifreeze) often present as if the animal is intoxicated with alcohol. The kidneys are the target organ; antifreeze destroys the kidney tissue. This is an emergency situation, and life threatening within hours. Please see your veterinarian immediately. Success of treatment depends on quick treatment.

More About Antifreeze and What It Is Used For

Antifreeze is a syrupy liquid that is usually brightly colored; neon green or neon pink. It may be found leaking under cars in the heat of summer or after engine maintenance. Spills of this liquid are also common in winter months as car owners perform seasonal engine maintenance.

Antifreeze is used in the plumbing systems of cabins and other vacation homes in extreme climates to prevent broken pipes in winter. Antifreeze may also be used to weigh down portable basketball hoops and be a a source of antifreeze for curious pets.

From the VetMed blog:
Warning - Antifreeze From A Basketball Hoop?

This chemical is an ingredient of de-icers, hydraulic brake fluids, and photograph developing chemicals. Antifreeze is odorless and has a sweet taste, which can be attractive to curious and thirsty animals and children.

Antifreeze Toxicity - First Stage

Acute cases of antifreeze toxicity (within 12 hours of ingestion) often present as if the animal was intoxicated with alcohol: stumbling, vomiting and depression are common signs. Seizures, increased urination (initially; in later stages, urinary output is decreased) and increased thirst may also be seen.

Antifreeze Toxic Effects on Kidneys

The kidneys are most severely affected, and even if the animal seems to improve initially with treatment, they may succumb shortly after to kidney failure (3-5 days post ingestion). The kidneys shut down, and the animal is unable to produce urine.

This type of kidney failure usually happens 12-24 hours after ingestion in cats, and 36-72 hours post ingestion in dogs. Success of treatment is dependent upon quick treatment. If antifreeze ingestion is known or even suspected, do not delay. This is not a "wait-and-see" situation; kidney damage will be more severe as time (hours) go by.

If you suspect that your animal has come into contact with antifreeze, contact your veterinarian immediately.

A Safer Antifreeze Alternative

A safer alternative to traditional antifreeze (ethylene glycol) is propylene glycol. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is odorless, but differs in that it is virtually tasteless and does not cause kidney damage. In fact, propylene glycol has been approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as a food additive. It is classified as "generally recognized as safe" for human consumption.

To learn more about safer alternatives:

Photo: Radiator Antifreeze by evelynishere on Flickr

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