Heart failure is a common complication of heart disease in dogs. Though canine heart disease includes many different types of conditions, all forms of heart disease can ultimately cause heart failure.
Types of Heart Failure in Dogs
Heart disease in dogs may take on two different forms.
- Right-sided heart failure occurs when the right side of heart fails to pump blood properly. This failure results in blood which should be returning from other parts of the body backing up in those body organs rather than returning normally to the heart. This results in accumulation of fluid in other parts of the body, most noticably in the abdominal cavity, the liver and the limbs.
- Left-sided heart failure occurs when the pumping mechanism in the left side of heart fails. In this instance, the blood returning from the lungs to the heart backs up and fluid accumulates in the lungs.
In some dogs, both sides of the heart are involved. This may lead to failure of both the left and ride side of the heart and result in signs of both right- and left-sided heart failure occurring simultaneously.
Signs of Canine Heart Disease and Heart Failure
Dogs with heart disease may be asymptomatic (free of any signs of illness) if the heart disease is mild enough to allow the heart and the rest of the body to compensate for the disease. However, if the heart disease is severe enough that the heart cannot compensate for the disease, heart failure will occur and will lead to signs of heart failure.
The types of signs seen in heart failure will vary depending on how severe the disease is and which side of the heart is affected. However, the signs most commonly encountered with heart failure include:
- generalized weakness
- tiring easily
- lack of appetite
- weight loss
- coughing (most often seen with left-sided heart failure)
- breathing heavily (most often seen with left-sided heart failure)
- swelling in the legs (most often seen with right-sided heart failure)
- a bloated, fluid-filled abdomen (most often seen with right-sided heart failure and also known as ascites)
- increased heart rate
- weak pulse
Cyanosis (a bluish coloration of the gums) may occur if blood circulation is poor and is an indication of inadequate amounts of oxygen reaching the body.
Other signs that may occur with heart failure include vomiting, diarrhea or constipation as a result of poor blood circulation reaching the liver and intestines.
Heart diseases that cause arrhythmias (irregular heart beats) may cause fainting episodes which are also known as syncope.
Coughing is often the first sign of canine heart disease and is the most frequent reason dog owners bring their dog to the veterinarian.