All Disease & Parasite FAQs for additional articles on a variety of topics."> All Disease & Parasite FAQs for additional articles on a variety of topics."> Growing library of canine FAQs covering a variety of health topics for dogsAll Disease & Parasite FAQs for additional articles on a variety of topics.">
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Frequently Asked Questions - Canine Health

Growing library of feline-specific FAQs covering a variety of dog-specific health topics for dogs. Please see All Disease & Parasite FAQs for additional articles on a variety of topics. variety of topics.

Reproductive Health: Menopause and Dogs
This question comes up fairly often, do dogs go through menopause? This, and a few other questions about canine reproductive health are answered here.

Feline Reproduction
Learn the average age and length of the first heat cycle, pregnancy length, and about spaying and neutering in cat. Also learn about abnormal conditions such as ectopic ovaries and facts specific to cats relating to ovulation and estrus.

Canine Reproduction
Learn the average age and length of the first heat cycle, pregnancy length, and about spaying and neutering in dogs. Also learn about abnormal conditions such as ectopic ovaries and pseudopregnancy (false pregnancy).

Epulis - A Common Growth in Dog Mouths
Epulis is a common tumor in dogs' mouths, occurring along the gum line. Surgical removal is best, and easiest, when the lump is small. While these tumors may recur locally, they do not spread to other areas of the body.

Canine Influenza Disease and Vaccination - H3N8 Virus
The canine H3N8 virus, also called Canine Influenza Virus (CIV), is a relatively new influenza virus in dogs.

Treating Herniated Spinal Disks in Small Breed Dogs
Guest Author Dr. Beatrix Nanai, a veterinary neurosurgeon in Miami, Florida discusses spinal disk disease diagnosis and treatment. This is a common health problem in small breed dogs. Learn more about diagnosis and surgical treatment for this condition.

Fireworks and Thunder - Loud Noise Phobias
Fireworks aren't just for the 4th of July anymore. We have them to celebrate New Year's Eve, amusement park shows, and baseball games. Same with thunderstorms, while more common in spring and summer, they can happen all year round. Here are resources to learn more about fireworks and thunder problems in pets (loud noise phobias) and how to keep...

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Otitis in Dogs
Ear infections and otitis are both very common in dogs. Learn to recognize the symptoms of canine ear infections and otitis and how the problem is diagnosed.

Preventing Ear Infections in Dogs
Ear infections are irritating and sometimes painful for your dog so prevention is preferable, if possible. Learn some tips to help you keep your dog free of ear infections.

Treatment of Otitis and Ear Infections in Dogs
Otitis and ear infections in dogs can have many different causes and, in order to be successful, treatment of the ear disease must be based on the cause. Learn about the treatment options for canine otitis and ear infections.

How to Clean Your Dog or Cat's Ears
Cleaning your dog or cat's ears should be part of your regular grooming routine for your pet. Learn how to properly clean your dog or cat's ears.

Causes of Ear Infections and Otitis in Dogs
Ear infections and otitis in dogs are common and there are many different potential causes. Learn more about the things that cause canine ear problems.

Ear Hematomas in Dogs and Cats
An ear hematoma is an uncomfortable situation for a dog or cat. Learn about the potential causes and the treatment options for canine and feline auricular hematomas.

Heat Stroke from Groomer Cage Dryer
Heat stroke is a danger in summer months, especially for pets left in parked cars. Another risk factor for heat stroke may not be so obvious: how your pet's hair is dried.

Can Canine Diabetes Be Cured?
Canine diabetes mellitus is a serious disease and is frequently diagnosed in dogs. Although diabetes mellitus can be controlled for your dog, usually through periodic insulin injections, treatment for dogs with diabetes mellitus is usually lifelong and it is unlikely that your dog will ever be cured of the disease.

Summer Pet Safety Tips
Summertime and the living is easy. A nice thought and often true, but not usually without some foresight and planning where pets are concerned. Humans can change into cooler clothes, get inside for the air conditioned coolness and pack a water bottle to stay hydrated. Pets have a harder time of it when the temperatures soar. Learn about the dangers of summer heat, thunderstorm and fireworks phobias, water safety and more in this summertime safety tip archive.

Signs Seen with Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats
Some of the signs seen with diabetes mellitus may be explained as 'getting older' or 'it's hot outside,' but these are signs that shouldn't be ignored. The onset of signs may be gradual and hard to notice at first. Learn to recognize the signs of diabetes mellitus and contact your veterinarian as soon as signs are noticed.

Pet Summer Safety Tip: Water - Don't Leave Home Without It
Warmer weather is on the way -- are you prepared? This Quick Tip offers a way to have fresh water available on the road for your traveling pet companions.

Can Dogs with Diabetes Be Treated Without Insulin Injections?
Dogs with diabetes are most frequently treated with insulin injections. However, many dog owners would prefer not to give their dog daily injections. Are there alternatives for diabetic dogs besides insulin injections?

How to Feed a Dog with Diabetes
Dogs with diabetes mellitus require a strictly controlled diet. Find out what, when and how to feed a dog with diabetes.

Canine and Feline Diabetes - The Somogyi Effect
For dogs and cats with diabetes, overdosage of insulin can lead to a phenomenon known as Somogyi effect. Learn how and why blood glucose levels can actually end up too high in diabetic dogs and cats overdosed with insulin.

Can Feline Diabetes Be Cured?
Feline diabetes is a common endocrine disease in cats. However, if your cat is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus early in the course of disease, it is possible for your cat to go into remission and not require insulin injections or other medications any longer.

Why does my pet have fleas when flea control products are regularly applied?
This FAQ is from a recent forum question. The viewer is frustrated because while she is using flea products regularly on her pet, she is still finding fleas. Why? Read this FAQ to find out more about the flea life cycle and various methods of flea control.

Monitoring a Dog or Cat with Diabetes
Canine and feline diabetes are both serious diseases in the dog and cat respectively. If your pet has diabetes, he will need to be monitored closely. Learn the basics of how dogs and cats with diabetes are monitored, including the testing that is used to evaluate health and progress.

Treating Canine Diabetes Mellitus
Canine diabetes mellitus is one of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine diseases in the dog. Learn about the basics of treating a dog for diabetes.

Treating Feline Diabetes Mellitus
Feline diabetes mellitus is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease. Learn about the basics of treating a cat with diabetes.

Hypoglycemia and the Diabetic Dog or Cat
Hypoglycemia is a potential complication of both canine and feline diabetes mellitus. Learn about the symptoms and causes of hypoglycemia in diabetic dogs and cats as well as how to treat it.

How to Do a Blood Glucose Curve for Your Diabetic Dog or Cat
For a diabetic dog or cat, a blood glucose curve is an essential part of evaluating their progress and health. Learn how to perform a blood glucose curve at home for your dog or cat with diabetes.

DAP Spray - Dog Appeasing Pheromone
DAP, or Dog Appeasing Pheromone, spray is a natural and non-toxic aid to calm dogs stressed by loud noises (fireworks, thunder), car rides, meeting new people/new baby, being separated from their people, and other stressful situations.

Fireworks and Thunder - Tips for Coping with Loud Noise Phobias
How dogs and cats react to loud noises varies widely. Some animals seem unaffected, others will jump through glass windows in terror. For animals that are afraid of loud noises, they can't help it, and the effect often multiplies if left untreated. What works for one pet may not work for another. Here are some things to try to help reduce loud...

Dog Neuter - Was my dog really neutered?
You take your male dog in to be neutered, and after he is back home, it appears that the testicles are still there. Or are they? Learn the answer to this common question, why it may happen, and if you should be concerned.

Tips for keeping your pet cool and comfortable
The summer heat is on for many of us. While many people enjoy the cool comfort of the air conditioning at work, what about the pets? This article offers some quick tips to making sure your pets are as comfortable as possible during the "dog days of summer".

Summer Fun - Summer Safety
Summer pet safety, keep your pets safe from seasonal hazards

How to Remove a Tick From Your Pet Or Yourself
There are many ideas about the best way to remove a tick, one of the most common tricks being to put a lit match on the tick to make the tick "angry" enough to back out on its own. The truth is, this can actually make things worse for you and the tick; injecting more foreign material into you (or your pet) from the tick. Early removal of the...

What are the signs seen with antifreeze toxicity in dogs and cats?
Acute cases of antifreeze toxicity (when an animal consumes antifreeze) often present as if the animal is intoxicated with alcohol. This is an emergency situation, and life threatening within hours. Please see your veterinarian immediately. Success of treatment depends on quick treatment.

Summer Dangers Besides the Heat
Familiarizing yourself with common yard and garden hazards and taking some preventative measures now can help you to keep your pets safe all summer long.

Tick Twister - Easy Tool for Safely Removing Ticks
The 'best way' to remove ticks is with as minimal as possible handling of the tick. A lit match is definitely not the best way, and can induce more damage. The Tick Twister provides an easy way to remove ticks that is low cost, safe, and utilizing a technique to reduce the spread of infectious agents via ticks.

Safe Mosquito and Fly Repellent for Dogs and Cats
Bugs bug dogs and cats just like they do people. Furry haircoats help some, but flies, mosquitoes, gnats and other flying, biting insects can and do bite pets; sometimes spreading disease (heartworm, pink eye) and causing rashes. Learn how to safely use insect repellents for pets and how to reduce your pet's exposure to irritating and...

Giardia: A Zoonotic Disease of Pets and People
Giardia is a one-celled protozoan parasite that lives in the intestinal tract of many animals. When this parasite produces a diarrheal diease in animals, it is called Giardiasis. Learn about this parasite, how it is transmitted, signs of disease, and how it is diagnosed and treated in this FAQ.

Diabetes - Living With A Diabetic Dog Or Cat
The diagnosis of diabetes can be daunting. For many people, monitoring blood glucose and giving daily insulin injections to their pets seems like mission impossible. After some time and practice though, managing your diabetic patient can become second nature. What stories and tips can you share with others who live with diabetic pets,...

Ear Mites
About ear mites in cats and dogs, including risk factors, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

Can Ivermectin-Based Heartworm Prevention Medicines Be Used in Collie Breeds?
Ivermectin is commonly used as a heartworm prevention medicine in dogs. However, some breeds of dog such as Collies and similar breeds can have a gene mutation known as MDR1. How safe is ivermectin for collies and similar breeds of dogs?

Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of dogs and cats. Diabetes mellitus occurs when insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas are destroyed and the body is no longer able to regulate glucose (sugar). This results in high levels of glucose in the blood and urine. Learn more about diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats and how this disease is...

Safety and Side Effects of Ivermectin in Dogs and Cats
Ivermectin is used in dogs and cats to treat a variety of parasitic diseases. It is also a popular heartworm prevention medicine. Learn about the safety and side effects of ivermectin for dogs and cats.

Using Ivermectin in Dogs and Cats
Ivermectin in dogs and cats is used for many different purposes. It is also used at many different dosages depending on the reason for treatment. Learn more about the uses of ivermectin in dogs and cats.

Veterinary Q & A: Pancreatitis in Dogs and Cats
It's that time of year again - holiday feasts and yummy treats start to appear everywhere. It is tempting to give extra treats to pets too, but caution is advised -- Pancreatitis and other stomach/gut upsets can occur, leading to a trip to the vet in some cases. Pancreatitis can also occur without a known history of fatty food ingestion. Learn...

Benazepril in Dogs and Cats
Benazepril, also known as Fortekor® or Lotensin®, is used in dogs and cats to treat various conditions. Learn more about the potential uses and possible side effects of benazepril in dogs and cats.

Enalapril (Enacard®, Vasotec®) in Dogs and Cats
Enalapril (Enacard®, Vasotec®), an ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitor, is used to treat dogs and cats with heart disease, kidney disease and high blood pressure. Learn more about the usages and potential side effects of enalapril in dogs and cats.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) - A Congenital Heart Disease of Dogs
Heart disease in dogs can have many causes. Patent ductus arteriosus is the most common congenital heart disease in the canine.

Pimobendan (Vetmedin®) in Dogs and Cats
Pimobendan (Vetmedin®)is used in dogs and in cats to treat various types of heart disease. Learn more about how pimobendan can help dogs and cats with heart disease.

Furosemide (Lasix®) in Dogs and Cats
Furosemide (Lasix®) is used in dogs and cats to treat congestive heart failure and other causes of fluid build-up in the lungs and elsewhere. Learn more about how and when furosemide is used to treat dogs and cats.

Quiz: Top 5 Human Drugs - Toxic to Pets Or Not?
Many of the calls received at Pet Poison Helpline are about pets who have consumed human medications. Sometimes the pets consume the medications on their own, and sometimes owners unknowingly give their pets human medications that are toxic to dogs and cats. According to the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics report, released in April...

Fat Pets - How You Slimmed Down Your Overweight Pet
You recognize that your pet is overweight. Your veterinarian has sent home a diet and exercise plan for your pet. That said, old habits and patterns can be hard to break. What worked for your pet to break those snack and couch potato habits? How did you get (and keep) your pet on the road to a fit and healthy life? Share what worked here.

Dogs Left In Cars - Risk of Heat Stroke on Warm Days
Every year I see pets, especially dogs, left in the car while the owner "runs a quick errand" inside a store or restaurant. The windows are cracked open, the dog will be fine, right? It's only for a few minutes. Considering that the closed up car acts like a greenhouse and the inside temperatures can soar to 120F in "just a few minutes," instead...

Hot Spots in Dogs
A hot spot is a localized area of skin inflammation and infection. These inflamed areas are itchy, painful, and can occur within hours. Read this FAQ to learn how to cool them down.

Causes of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Related Heart Disease in Dogs
Heart disease in dogs is a common diagnosis. In large breed dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of heart disease. Learn more about canine dilated cardiomyopathy and what causes this heart disease in dogs.

Tricuspid Valve Disease - Heart Disease Related to the Tricuspid Valve in Dogs
Though valvular heart disease in dogs is most commonly caused by mitral gland degeneration, tricuspid valve degeneration can also occur. Learn about how heart disease and heart failure can result from tricuspid valve disease in dogs and about the signs of this type of canine heart disease.

Protect Your Pets From Getting Sunburned
People are realizing dangers of sun exposure. Now this sun care attention is turning to our pets. White animals and those that have a summer hair cut or with naturally thin (or nonexistent!) hair coats are particularly sensitive to the sun, and may suffer the same ills as humans: sunburn and skin cancers. This Quick Tip offers ideas and cautions...

Treatment of Heart Disease Caused by Degenerative Valve Disease in Dogs
Heart disease in dogs caused by degeneration of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves is a common diagnosis. Learn about the medications and techniques commonly used to treat valvular heart disease in dogs.

Mitral Valve Disease - The Most Common Cause of Valvular Heart Disease in Dogs
Heart disease is common in dogs. Valvular heart disease is the most common cause of heart disease and is especially common in small breed dogs. The mitral valve is the valve of the heart that is most often affected. Learn more about mitral valve disease in dogs.

Diagnosing and Monitoring Canine Valvular Heart Disease
Canine heart disease is common and valvular heart disease is the most common cause of heart disease in dogs. Learn about the methods veterinarians use to diagnose mitral and tricuspid valve heart disease and read about ways to monitor your dog at home.

Diagnosing Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Screening Dogs for Heart Disease
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common heart disease in large breed dogs. Learn what techniques are used to diagnose dogs that are sick because of DCM and how healthy dogs can be screened for heart disease caused by dilated cardiomyopathy.

Treatment and Prognosis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart disease that affects large breed dogs most often. Learn about the treatment options for dogs that have dilated cardiomyopathy and the prognosis for dogs diagnosed with heart disease caused by DCM.

Signs of Heart Disease Caused by Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Dogs
Dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can suffer from all of the signs of heart failure. Learn about the signs of heart disease in dogs caused by dilated cardiomyopathy.

Treatment of Heartworm Disease in Dogs - Slow Kill Versus Immiticide Treatment
Heartworm treatment in dogs is risky with any method. Learn about the relative risks of the slow kill method with monthly ivermectin-containing heartworm preventive medications versus using melarsomine (Immiticide®) to treat canine heartworm disease.

Heartworm disease and treatment - share your experiences with dog and cat...
Heartworm disease is caused by a worm that lives mainly in the blood vessels of the lung and in the heart. Heartworm disease is transmitted by mosquitoes and has been seen in several species. Dogs are very susceptible and cats are at risk, too. Heartworm can be difficult to treat and sometimes fatal, but fortunately Heartworm disease is easy to...

Signs of Heartworm Disease in Dogs
Canine heartworm disease is a potential cause of heart failure as well as damage to the lungs in dogs. Learn about heartworms and the signs of heartworm disease in infected dogs.

Treatment of Heartworm Disease in Dogs
Treatment of heartworm disease in dogs is possible but is not without risk. Learn about the options available for treating a dog with heartworm disease and the risks involved with treatment of canine heartworm disease.

Valvular Heart Disease in Dogs - The Basics of Canine Degenerative Valve Disease
The most common cause of heart disease in dogs, especially small breed dogs, is valvular heart disease. Learn how disease of the mitral and tricuspid valves of the canine heart can cause heart disease and heart failure for affected dogs.

Dog Eye Diseases
Common eye diseases of dogs, including Cherry Eye, Eyelash Problems, Entropion. If your dog is pawing at, rubbing or shows signs of pain or irritation around the eyes, seek veterinary help as soon as possible, as eye conditions can change quickly.

Glossary Term: Blepharospasm
If you notice blepharospasm in your dog or cat, should you try a bland diet and wait until tomorrow? Should you be worried about convulsions? Does your pet need a warmer place to sleep? Or none of the above? Read this glossary entry to find out the meaning of this medical term.

Brake-Fast® Pet Food Bowl
The brake-fast bowl® was designed to slow dogs down when eating. This bowl also works for cats. This is useful for the pets who eat so fast that they gulp in air, potentially leading to conditions such as bloat or vomiting after eating. Slowing down the food intake also helps the pet feel more full - reducing overeating and preventing obesity. I...

Heartworm Disease in Dogs and Cats
Heartworm disease is caused by a parasite that lives mainly in the blood vessels of the lung and in the heart. Heartworm disease has been seen in several species, but dogs are very susceptible. Cats can be severely affected even by only a single heartworm. Heartworm disease may be fatal and difficult to treat, but fortunately heartworm disease...

Heartworm Disease
Learn about heartworm Disease in dogs and cats - the parasite life cycle, treatment options, clinical signs, and how to prevent this deadly parasite. Share your experiences with heartworm in dogs and cats.

Dental Care Questions
Veterinary Dental Questions - Dental Care for Pets. Learn about dental disease in dogs and cats, what is involved in a dental cleaning, and how to keep your pet's mouth and teeth healthy with this Veterinary Q & A.

Torn Toenail First Aid
Torn Toenail First Aid. Toenail injuries are fairly common in dogs and cats, and may occur while playing, exercising or while the nails are being trimmed. Learn how to take care of an injured toenail in a dog or cat: safely stop bleeding, trim the torn nail, and proper aftercare precautions.

Easter and Springtime Hazards for Dogs and Cats
Ah, spring. It is nice to have a little color after a long winter. Easter and springtime decorations (and edibles) liven the scenery, but also pose a potential hazard to pets. Who knew that plastic Easter grass could be dangerous? Spring is a great time to take an inventory of potential pet hazards. It's better than the alternative of spending...

Docked Tail
Ear cropping is banned in many countries but still allowed in the United States. Learn more about this elective, cosmetic surgery performed on some breeds of dogs.

Treating Heart Disease and Heart Failure in Dogs and Cats
Heart disease and heart failure in dogs and cats can be quite serious. Learn about the different medications commonly used to treat heart disease and congestive heart failure for dogs and cats.

Dental Care for Pets
Pet dental care is important for overall health. Learn about dental disease in dogs and cats, what is involved in a dental cleaning, and how to keep your pet's mouth and teeth healthy with this Veterinary Q & A.

Dogs and Aspirin
When a dog is in pain, owners are eager to give medication to ease that pain, but giving human medications such as aspirin or Tyelenol® to pets can cause more problems than it cures. Learn why in this article.

Levetiracetam (Keppra®) in Dogs and Cats
Levetiracetam (Keppra®) is an anti-epileptic drug that can be used to treat seizures in dogs and cats. Read about how levetiracetam can help prevent seizures in dogs and cats and about the potential side effects of levetiracetam in dogs and cats as well.

Is Heart Disease the Same as Heart Failure?
Heart disease in dogs and cats is commonly diagnosed and in many cases will eventually lead to heart failure. Learn the difference between heart disease and heart failure in dogs and cats.

Anti-Seizure Medications
Phenobarbital is the medication that is most commonly used to treat seizures and epilepsy in dogs and cats. There are other medications for canine and feline seizures too. Learn more about traditional and newer seizure control medications.

Diazepam (Valium®) in Dogs and Cats
Diazepam (Valium®) is used for several purposes in dogs and cats. Read about the usages and the potential side effects of diazepam for dogs and cats.

Potassium Bromide (KBr) for Treating Seizures in Dogs and Cats
Seizures caused by epilepsy in dogs and cats can be treated with several different medications, including potassium bromide (KBr). Learn about how potassium bromide is used in canine and feline epilepsy, its advantages and disadvantages and potential side effects.

Treating Canine Seizures and/or Epilepsy with Felbamate
Dogs frequently suffer from seizures and/or epilepsy. Felbamate is one of the new generation antiepileptic drugs that is being used to treat seizures in dogs. Find out more about using felbamate to treat seizures in dogs.

Refractory Epilepsy and/or Seizures in Dogs and Cats
Seizures and epilepsy in dogs and cats are sometimes not responsive to treatment. Learn about some of the reasons your dog or cat may have refractory epilepsy and seizures that continue with medication.

Gabapentin in Dogs and Cats
Gabapentin can be used in dogs and cats to relieve pain and treat seizures. Learn about the uses of gabapentin in dogs and cats and how it can be used to treat seizures and/or pain.

Frequently Asked Questions About Seizures in Dogs and Cats
Seizures and epilepsy are a common diagnosis in both dogs and cats. Learn the answers to frequently asked questions about epilepsy and other seizure disorders in dogs and cats.

Docked Tails - What is your opinion of cosmetic tail docking in dogs?
Tail docking is amputation of the tail. Sometimes there is a medical reason for these surgeries, such as repeated or non-healing injuries. For many breeds, the reason is cosmetic. What is your opinion of tail docking for cosmetic reasons?

Why Does My Dog Hyperventilate When Excited?
A viewer asks: "My two year old dog, 'Puppy,' hyperventilates when family members visit. Sometimes it lasts too long for my comfort. Do you have any suggestions that will help Puppy?" This FAQ explores some possible causes for this dog to have abnormal respiration when excited.

Tapeworms: What wormer is best?
Tapeworms are a very common parasite of dogs and cats. Most commonly transmitted by fleas, this parasite is also transmissible to humans who accidentally eat an infected flea (i.e. infants and children). Treatment for tapeworm infection in pets is easy if the correct drug is used.

Ear Crops and Tail Docks - What is your opinion of cosmetic ear crops and...
Ear cropping is when the floppy ear portion of some dog breeds is surgically removed - amputated - to make the ear stand up. Tail docking is done for some breeds and is the amputation of the tail, the length of remaining portion of tail is determined by the breed standard. Sometimes there is a medical reason for these surgeries. Many times the...

Frito Feet: Why do dog paws smell like Fritos, Corn Nuts or Popcorn?
Questions about pet odors are common. Often a bad smell indicates a problem or disease process, but not always. What should you do if you notice that your dog's feet have a odor, often described as smelling like corn chips or old popcorn? Is this something to worry about? Read this FAQ to find out more about "Frito Feet."

Phenobarbital for Treating Seizures and Epilepsy in Dogs and Cats
Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat seizures and epilepsy in dogs and cats. Learn how phenobarbital works in dogs and cats. Find out the benefits and possible side effects of using phenobarbital for your dog or cat.

Seizures and Epilepsy in Dogs and Cats
Seizures are one of the most common neurological problems that are seen in both dogs and cats. Seizures have many possible causes and signs seen vary with the animal and the cause. Learn more about seizures in pets - the signs, possible causes, diagnosis and treatment options in this collection of resources.

Treating Canine Seizures or Epilepsy
Canine seizures or epilepsy can be treated in many different ways. Learn about the medications used to treat seizures or epilepsy in dogs.

Veterinary Q & A: Rabies
Rabies is a zoonotic disease, a disease that is transmissible from animals to humans. Rabies is a virus known to affect all mammals, including humans. Most commonly, rabies is found in carnivores (meat-eating animals) and insect-eating bats. Learn what the signs are and how to protect yourself and pets from this fatal disease.

Canine Seizures - Causes of Seizures in Dogs
Seizures in dogs can occur for many different reasons. Explore the various causes of canine seizures.

What is Status Epilepticus and How Does It Affect Dogs and Cats
Status epilepticus is defined as a persistent state of seizure. Learn how status epilepticus can affect dogs and cats and what you should do if your dog or cat has a seizure that will not stop.

Dog and Cat Vaccinations - How do you feel about dog and cat vaccinations?
It used to be that dogs and cats were examined and vaccinated every year, as soon as that reminder card came in the mail. In recent years, with the development of new vaccine technologies and ways to assess risks and protection levels, thoughts on vaccination protocols have changed. Many veterinarians now follow the The American Animal Hospital...

Diagnosing Seizures and Epilepsy in Dogs and Cats
Seizures are a common problem in dogs and are sometimes seen in cats also. Seizures may be due to epilepsy or to other diseases or conditions. Learn how veterinarians diagnose the cause of canine and feline seizures and/or epilepsy.

Comparing Canine and Feline Seizures to Other Diseases or Conditions
Canine and feline seizures are a common neurological occurrence. However, there are a few other diseases that can appear similar to a seizure in a dog or cat. Learn what conditions to look for and how to tell them apart from a seizure in your dog or cat.

Seizures and Epilepsy in Dogs and Cats
Seizures and epilepsy can occur in both dogs and cats. Learn how the terms seizure and epilepsy are defined and understand the difference between how the words seizures and epilepsy are used in the dog and cat.

Canine Seizures - Types of Seizures in Dogs
Seizures can occur in dogs and can take several different forms. Learn the different types of seizures which dogs can suffer and how to recognize a canine seizure.

What To Do if Your Dog or Cat Is Having a Seizure
Watching your dog or cat have a seizure is a frightening experience. Learn how to take care of your dog or cat if he does have a seizure.

Heart Disease in Cats

Heart disease in cats is common, but often asymptomatic. Learn to recognize the signs of heart problems in cats, various causes, diagnostic and treatment options, and how to manage your heart patient pet at home.

Heart Murmurs in Dogs
Heart murmurs are frequently heard in dogs and may indicate the presence of heart disease. However, the severity of the heart disease cannot be evaluated by the sound of the heart murmur itself.

Hemorrhagic GastroEnteritis (HGE) in Dogs
Hemorrhagic GastroEnteritis (HGE) in dogs is a sudden-onset episode of vomiting and diarrhea, often very bloody in nature. The exact cause is unknown, but there are many theories: diet, a bacterial infection or bacterial toxin, virus, reaction to an intestinal parasite, etc. Stress may play a role in the development of HGE. This disease may...

Heart Disease in Dogs and Cats - Tell us about your pet's heart disease
Heart disease is common in dogs and cats. The signs can be difficult to detect at first, but coughing, exercise intolerance, and difficulty breathing are common signs of heart (and lung) problems. Some heart diseases, such as heartworm, are preventable and treatable. Some conditions (e.g.) murmurs may be a congenital problem. What signs did you...

What causes a bad odor around eyes?
A viewer asks: "My Shih Tzu has an bad odor around his eyes. What causes that?" This is a common problem and one that needs daily attention to help keep odors and skin inflammation under control.

Why Does My Dog Stink?
Have you ever asked what you can do to get rid of that "doggie" odor in your pet? It may not be as simple as changing the shampoo you use. Various skin and coat conditions can cause foul odor that may or may not be helped by simply bathing your pet. This Q & A is about a smelly dog and illustrates the importance of a thorough veterinary exam to...

Signs of Heart Disease in the Dog
The symptoms of heart disease in dogs are a result of heart failure. Learn to recognize the signs of canine heart disease and heart failure.

Heart Disease and Failure in Pets

Heart disease in pets is common. The signs range from asymptomatic (no signs) to coughing, difficulty breathing and depression. Learn to recognize the signs of heart problems in cats  dogs - various causes, diagnostic and treatment options, and how to manage your heart patient pet at home.

Causes of Heart Disease in Dogs
Heart disease in dogs is common. Canine heart disease can have many different causes.

Diagnosing Canine and Feline Heart Disease and Heart Failure
Canine and feline heart disease is common and can be life-threatening. Learn how heart disease and heart failure is diagnosed in dogs and cats.

Anipryl® - Help for Senior Dogs?
If your pet has a clean bill of health, but showing behavioral signs of "old age," you may want to speak to your veterinarian about a medication called Anipryl®. This drug has been approved to help animals with cognitive dysfunction. Your results may vary, but for some animals it has worked well for dementia-related symptoms.

Home Care of a Dog or Cat with Heart Disease or Heart Failure
Heart disease and/or heart failure is a frightening diagnosis for a pet owner. Learn how to care for and what to watch for if your dog or cat has heart disease or is suffering from heart failure.

Veterinary Questions: Leaking Puppy
Fresh from the e-mailbox. A viewer asks: "my puppy is about 7 months old and today she came in with a leakage from her anus that is a light brown color and smells like oil, should I be concerned?"

Spay and Neuter - Tell us about having your dog or cat spayed or neutered
Spaying and neutering are considered to be routine, elective surgeries. And, for a young healthy animal, they are. After a short recovery period, the pet resumes life as normal. Sometimes though, the pet may be in heat, pregnant, do too much licking or be too active post-surgery. There is also some debate at what age (if at all) pets should be spayed and neutered. Please share your pet's story and spay/neuter opinions here.

Pet Health Insurance Company Interview - Healthy Paws Pet Insurance
This interview is part of a continuing series of pet health insurance company interviews. I will be using the same ten questions for each of the veterinary health insurers so that viewers can learn about each company and compare what plans are available. In this interview, Oona Rokyta, PR & Marketing Director for Healthy Paws Pet Insurance &...

Dental Care: Tips for taking care of your pet's teeth
Puppies and kittens lose their "baby" teeth in the first year. Getting your pet used to having their mouth examined and teeth brushed is a good start to healthy teeth and gums. As pets age, dental tartar and plaque may affect not only the teeth, but gums, heart and internal organs as well. Here are some dental health resources to keep your pet...

Skin Problems in Dogs and Cats - Secrets to Prevent Skin Problems in Dogs and...
Skin Problems in Dogs and Cats - Secrets to Prevent Skin Problems in Dogs and Cats

Chocolate Toxicity

Chocolate toxicity is one of the number one concerns of pet lovers, even though there are other foods and household items that are much more toxic. Here are the top chocolate questions about pets eating chocolate.

How Much Chocolate is Toxic to Dogs and Cats?
The answer to "how much chocolate is toxic" varies widely on the type of chocolate, size of dog or cat, and how much they have consumed. Here are some guidelines and calculators to see how much is too much for each situation.

How is chocolate toxicity treated?

New Year's Resolutions for Pets - What Are Your New Year's Resolutions for...
I am not a big fan of making resolutions for my pets or myself. It seems to be a set up for disappointment. That said, I am a fan of being aware of positive changes and the power of telling someone else or writing it down. Small steps are best, and 100% compliance isn't necessary for success, but this leads to more steps and more positive...

Itching and Scratching in Dogs and Cats
Itching, scratching, fleas, allergies and hair loss are among the most common questions to veterinarians. Hair loss and scratching are very common signs that represent a multitude of possible health or parasite problems. Often the scratching, chewing and licking lead to secondary problems. Your veterinarian will need to do an examination and...

Skin Disease, Hair Loss and Scratching in Dogs and Cats
Itching, scratching, fleas, allergies and hair loss are among the most common questions to veterinarians. Hair loss and scratching are very common signs that represent a multitude of possible health or parasite problems. Often the scratching, chewing and licking lead to secondary problems. Your veterinarian will need to do an examination and...

Most Common Causes of Allergies in Dogs and Cats
Allergies in dogs and cats are a common cause of skin problems. Fleas, substances in the environment and foods are the most common causes of allergies in dogs and cats.

Dermatitis in Dogs and Cats Caused by Bacterial and Yeast Infections
Yeast and bacterial infections can contribute to dermatitis in dogs and cats. Treatment of yeast and bacterial infections in dogs and cats involves anti-fungal medications and antibiotics, respectively.

Canine and Feline Flea Allergy Treatment
Flea allergies in dogs and cats are common causes of skin disease. Treatment of flea allergies in dogs and cats requires controlling the flea infestation.

Diagnosing Hair Loss and Scratching in Dogs and Cats
Hair loss and scratching in dogs and cats are frequent causes of veterinary visits. There are several diagnostic tests your veterinarian will want to perform to help diagnose the cause of hair loss and scratching in your dog or cat.

Treatment of Dogs and Cats with Food Allergy
Food allergy in dogs and cats can cause skin disease, itching and scratching. Treatment for food allergy in dogs and cats requires feeding protein and carbohydrate sources to which your dog or cat is not allergic.

Iron Toxicity in Dogs and Cats
Iron toxicosis in pets (usually dogs) is most often seen after eating large quantities of vitamins and mineral supplements especially iron-heavy pre-natal vitamins. These tablets be sugar-coated, making them attractive to dogs. Other possibilities include disposable hand warmers and some types of fertilizers. Learn what signs are seen with iron...

Treating Dogs and Cats with Allergies Caused by Atopy
Atopy is frequent cause of allergies in dogs and cats. Learn about the treatment of allergies caused by atopy in dogs and cats.

Common Causes of Hair Loss and Scratching in Dogs and Cats
Hair loss and scratching in dogs and cats are commonly seen symptoms. There are many diseases that can cause hair loss and scratching in dogs and cats. These are some of the most common causes.

The Five Minute Consult Clinical Companion: Small Animal Toxicology

Is My Pet Overweight? - Part I
Is my pet overweight? This article is an overview on how to get started on assessing your pet's body condition, diet and fitness levels. Your veterinarian will help determine your pet's optimal weight and help set up a safe weight loss program specifically for your pet if it is determined that obesity is a problem.

AAHA Helping Pets Fund
The American Animal Hospital Association, or AAHA, is a non-profit veterinary organization that that accredits companion animal veterinary hospitals in the US and Canada. The AAHA Helping Pets Fund helps people provide necessary veterinary care for their pets. To learn more about this fund program, I interviewed Tamara Fox, the AAHA Helping...

Beware of Batteries
Batteries of all shapes and sizes are in many everyday objects. We know to keep batteries out of reach of pets, but what about the TV remote, cell phone, toys, or other small chewable items that require batteries? Batteries contain acidic or alkaline chemicals, heavy metals, and the lithium button batteries may even pass an electric current to...

Safe Pet Toys
While it may be tempting for some to get that gigantic chew bone or the red and green colored 'candy canes' made of who-knows-what, some caution is advised before shopping for your pet(s) or your friend's pet(s). As with a gift for a human, realize that each pet has their preferences (chewer, ball player, etc.) and some may have health...

Are grapes and raisins poisonous to pets?
Originally thought to be an urban legend, it is now known that raisins and grapes are indeed toxic to dogs. The type of grape and the type of dog doesn't seem to matter, and the toxic amount may be a small serving to several ounces. Read this FAQ to learn what is known about this mystery toxin and to safeguard your pets from accidental poisoning.

How To Choose A Petsitter Or Kennel For Your Pet
Pets are part of the family and should have thorough, conscientious care while we are away. Here's how to choose the best pet care for your pet when you are away.

Toxic Foods - Raisins
Raisins and grapes are very toxic to dogs and possibly cats. Some dogs love eating raisins and grapes and will seek them out. Pet owners have used even raisins as a "healthy" treat for their dogs. At this point in time, the toxic factor of raisins and grapes has not been identified. It is thought to be contained in the flesh, not the seed, of...

Kidney Disease in Dogs and Cats
Kidney failure, also referred to as renal failure or renal insufficiency, can occur in both dogs and cats. In a healthy animal, the kidneys filter waste products that are produced by the body. In kidney failure, these waste products are not filtered properly and start to build up in the blood stream. This is when clinical signs of kidney...

Preventing Kidney Failure in Dogs and Cats
Kidney failure in dogs and cats is a common problem. However, there are some simple precautions that can help prevent kidney failure in dogs and cats.

Kidney Disease in Dogs and Cats - Tell us about your experiences with kidney...

Treating Acute Renal Failure in Dogs and Cats
Acute renal failure in dogs and cats is also known as kidney failure and it is a serious, life-threatening condition. The most important aspect of treatment for acute renal failure in dogs and cats is fluid therapy but other treatment methods are usually needed as well.

Treating Chronic Canine and Feline Renal Failure
Chronic canine and feline renal failure requires ongoing treatment. Learn about the options available for treating chronic canine and feline renal failure.

Testing for Canine and Feline Kidney Failure
Canine and feline kidney failure can be diagnosed using several different laboratory tests. Monitoring ongoing cases of canine and feline kidney failure is important also and involves many of the same tests used to diagnose kidney failure in the dog and cat.

Kidney Failure in Dogs and Cats
Kidney failure in dogs and cats can have many different causes. Both acute and chronic canine and feline kidney failure can occur. Common causes of kidney failure in dogs and cats include bacterial infections, immune-mediated disorders, inadequate blood flow to kidneys resulting from shock or trauma, toxins and metabolic diseases.

Kibble Nibble Dog Toy
The Kibble Nibble Dog Toy is a thinking dog treat dispenser. This toy will keep your dog active, thinking and busy. It is a great toy to keep your dog from being bored (and possibly destructive) while you are away, and for times when your dog may be stressed, such as a thunderstorm. My dogs are not highly food motivated, but on the advice of a...

Symptoms of Kidney Failure in Dogs and Cats
Kidney failure in dogs and cats is commonly seen. Kidney failure is especially common in older dogs and cats but can occur in dogs and cats of any age. It is important that pet owners know the symptoms of kidney failure in dogs and cats so that veterinary care can be sought if the symptoms occur.

Arthritis in Dogs and Cats - Share signs seen and tips to keep arthritic pets...
Arthritis is a disease that can affect any joint causing pain and discomfort. Dogs and cats who suffer from arthritis may be slow to get up or lay down, reluctant to go up or down stairs, or resist being picked up or handled. Have you noticed signs of arthritis in your pet? What sign(s) did you notice first? Did you visit your vet to help keep...

Arthritis in Dogs and Cats
Learning the signs of arthritis in dogs and cats is the first step to recognizing the problem and helping your pet stay comfortable as they age. Learn about arthritis in dogs and cats - the signs, diagnosis, treatment options and ways to prevent further joint damage, including maintaining a healthy weight for your pet.

Caring for Your Arthritic Dog
Arthritic dogs need special care at home to make their lives easier and more comfortable. Find out what you can do for your arthritic dog.

Treatment Options for Arthritis in Dogs
Arthritis in dogs is painful and the pain can be relieved with many different treatment options. Normally, incorporating more than one canine arthritis medicine and/or treatment option is the best way to treat arthritis in dogs.

Preventing Arthritis in Dogs and Cats
Arthritis in dogs and cats may not be completely preventable. However, the most important thing that can be done to prevent arthritis in dogs and cats is to maintain an ideal body weight and ideal body condition. Obese dogs and cats are more likely to suffer the signs of arthritis.

Why do I need to make an appointment for suture removal?
Many people are over-scheduled and short on time these days. I know that I am often wishing for more hours in the day. For some pet owners, scheduling an additional office visit for something so "easy" as removing sutures after a surgery seems like a waste of time. Here are some reasons why it is a good idea to schedule that recheck appointment.

Holiday Pets – Safety, Fun and Gifts for Your Pets Holidays
Help ensure that your pets are ready for the holidays. Shopping for pets and their people are just part of the preparations. Learn about keeping your pets safe during the holidays, holiday travel tips, gift ideas for pets, vets and your animal loving friends and family.  The About.com Pet Guides are here to help with a variety of topics on...

What's Your Diagnosis - Swollen Dog Nose
This dog was presented to the clinic in the morning with a swollen nose. She seemed fine the night before. What could cause this dramatic swelling? A local allergic reaction was the first thought. Find out what was done and how the final diagnosis was made to begin treatment.

Top 5 most common holiday calls to Pet Poison Helpline in 2009

I asked veterinary specialists Ahna Brutlag DVM and Justine A. Lee DVM DACVECC to list the top 5 pet safety and poisoning questions they have received during the holidays at Pet Poison Helpline. Here is their list of calls received so far during the 2009 holiday season.

Related Reading
Top 10 Pet Poison Prevention Tips
Icky Things Pets Eat

More from Pet Poison Helpline
Veterinary toxicology case reports and articles

Senior Dog Health
Some changes are to be expected with old age, some are not. Learn to watch for, and differentiate between, normal and possible medical problems for your senior dog. As always, if your pet is in pain, lethargic or simply not "normal," please consult your vet. This is especially important for senior pets - they may hide illness better and they do not often have the health "reserves" they did as a y…

My pet has bad breath. How can I care for my pet's teeth at home?
Ideally, your veterinarian should evaluate your pet's teeth and gums prior to starting at home dental care for your pet. A professional cleaning (and removal of any diseased teeth) will make home dental care easier and often with better long term success. This FAQ discusses different types of pet dental care products and where to find them.

My pet was spayed, but now looks as if she is in heat. How can this be?
This FAQ is taken from the Veterinary Medicine forum, where NIGHTSTARR1221 asks: "Our female dog was spayed when she was 4-5 months old. She is now 1-1/2 years old and bleeding; our male dog keeps trying to mate with her. The vet told my husband that sometimes this happens and that the way the dogs uterus is sometimes they miss an ovary and have to go back in. I cannot see that this is possible if they removed the uterus. Does anyone know if this is possible?"

What is an ectopic ovary?
Veterinary Quesstion - A viewer asks: what is an ectopic ovary?

What Is A Cuterebra Parasite?
A Cuterebra parasite is an opportunistic parasite found under the skin of small mammals. This parasite is the larval stage of the Cuterebra fly, who uses animal hosts to complete its life cycle. Learn more about this parasite most commonly seen in summer and fall in this FAQ.

What are the best methods to control fleas on my pet and in my house?
Fleas have a complex, 4 stage life cycle. Control of fleas on your pet and in your home must address all stages of this life cycle to stop the problem of flea infestation. This article will cover several different methods that are effective at controlling fleas when used properly.

What Makes Chocolate Toxic To Pets, And What Are The Signs Seen With Toxicity?
Chocolate is a popular treat all year round. Care must be taken when animals are around, though. Chocolate can be toxic, and sometimes even fatal, for animals. Dogs are most commonly affected, due to their ability to find it and the common 'sweet tooth' they seem to have. It is important to remember that cats and other species are susceptible to...

Is it OK to vaccinate my pet if she is pregnant or nursing?
Is it OK to vaccinate your pet if she is pregnant or may be pregnant? What about if she is nursing? Will the kittens or puppies be harmed? The answers to these questions can vary, and it is not always as simple as yes or no. Read this FAQ to find out the safest basic guidelines.

What is a recombinant vaccine, and how does it work?
Learn how has veterinary vaccination medicine changed and improved over the years. Recombinant technology allows for safer vaccination for our pets with less risk of disease or allergic reaction and better protection from natural disease.

The Fallacy of Titer Tests
Guest author Will Falconer, DVM, a Certified Veterinary Homeopath, discusses pet vaccinations and vaccine titers.

Euthanasia - How Will I know When It Is "Time" To Put A Pet To Sleep?
Having to make the decision to end a pet's life is never easy. How to evaluate "quality of life", and make a decision that that won't be filled with regret and guilt.

Why does my dog (or cat) eat grass?
Many people ask why their dog eats grass. The reasons can vary from they like the taste to possibly an empty or upset stomach.

Is it OK to feed my dog corn on the cob?
Most people are aware of the dangers of feeding pets a diet of table scraps that are high in fat (trimmings, gravy, etc.), especially pets who do not consume table scraps on a regular basis. This FAQ addresses feeding pets corn on the cob, which may seem like a healthy alternative, but real dangers exist and this food item is not recommended for...

How long is the gestation (pregnancy) period of dogs?
How long is a dog pregnant for? Do female dogs experience menopause? What health benefits can be gained from spaying (ovariohysterectomy) surgery? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this FAQ.

Is anesthesia necessary to do a dental cleaning on my pet?
Anesthesia is necessary to do a complete dental cleaning in pets. This includes full oral exam, treatment/removal of diseased teeth, removal of plaque and tartar, and finally polishing the teeth.

Veterinary Q & A - Itching, Scratching, and Hair Loss in Dogs & Cats
Veterinary Q & A - Itching, Scratching, and Hair Loss. Why is my pet scratching, and how can it be helped?

What does BSE stand for, and why is it called "Mad Cow" disease?
The first case of BSE, or Mad Cow Disease was discovered on 12/23/03 in the US. The purpose of this FAQ is to educate about the disease terminology in cattle. For human health and current political issues concerning BSE, please visit with your local health care provider or refer to local/national/Internet news sources.

What Does AIHA stand for, and What Should I Know About This Disease?
AIHA, or Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia, is a disease where the body's own immune system fails to recognize red blood cells as "self" and begins destroying these cells as if they are foreign invaders. Learn about this immune-related disease in this FAQ.

My vet said that my pet has a Lipoma. What is that, and should I be worried?
Lumps on dogs are fairly common as dogs age. Most are not serious, but some can be quite serious. Any time that you notice a lump on your pet, please have it examined by your veterinarian to rule out cancer or other health problems.

What is Ringworm, and how do pets get it?
Ringworm is not a worm, it is a fungus that can infect the skin of animals and humans. Read this FAQ to learn more.

What is Fly Strike, also known as Myasis?
Flies are common in the warmer months, and lay eggs in dead tissue/rotting material, and the eggs develop into larvae that need to eat. They larvae eat the dead and rotting tissue, and look like small, white grub worms. They appear quite fast (8-12 hours), and will eat away tissue on your pet if the right conditions are present. Learn how to...

Just the Facts: Anal Sacs
Learning to observe what is normal and and what is not in animals that can't talk takes time and patience. The purpose of this FAQ is to serve as a basic guideline to know when to consult your vet to see if an examination is in order. Questions about scooting are common. Learn reasons why your pet may scoot in this FAQ.

Pet Health: My dog's nose is dry. Is he sick?
Learning to observe what is normal and and what is not in animals that can't talk takes time and patience. The purpose of this FAQ is to serve as a basic guideline to know when to consult your vet to see if an examination is in order.

How to Give Your Dog or Cat a Flea Bath
How to get the most out of a flea bath, the start of a good flea control program. Not every itchy dog (or cat) has fleas, though. Be sure to consult with your veterinarian if your pet is itching or has inflammed skin before initiating treatment or special shampoos.

Are prophylactic antibiotics a good idea for routine neuters or spays?
Should pets be given antibiotics for routine "healthy" surgeries such as spays and neuters? Read this FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) to find out.

How To Soothe A Hot Spot - Some Quick Tips
Also known as "pyotraumatic dermatitis", these common pet skin lesions are usually caused (and made worse) by biting, licking, or scratching. Here are some quick tips for relieving the itch and inflammation to give your pet some relief.

Dog Days of Summer - What is a "hot spot"?
Also known as "pyotraumatic dermatitis", these common pet skin lesions are usually caused (and made worse) by biting, licking, or scratching.

Frequently Asked Question: Swollen paw -- should I wait and see, or call my vet?
Soft tissue swelling in an animal's paw may mean a few things: insect bite or sting, infection and abscession, or blunt tissue damage. First question to ask: is the paw painful? Learn more in this FAQ.

Why won't my vet just refill my pet's regular medication?
Pet owners commonly ask why they can't get a medication refilled for their pet without an examination. Whether for a recurring infection or a chronic condition that requires medication, your vet will likely want to see your pet on a regular basis prior to dispensing medication. Read this FAQ to learn the reasons why a check-in with the vet is required in most cases.

My pet is "not herself" lately. Should I watch her, or call the vet?
Learning what is "normal" and what isn't for your pets can be tricky at times. If your pet is not actively sick (vomiting, diarrhea) or injured (bleeding, limping), but not his or her normal bouncy self either, it is time to check in with your vet before becoming more serious.

Quick Tip - Protect your pet against Fly Strike (Myiasis)
Late summer is the most common time of year to see Fly Strike (Myasis). This unpleasant problem is caused when flies lay their eggs on diseased tissue or drainage of living animals and maggots are born. Maggots are the larve (immature form) of flies, and can cause very serious health problems for the host animal.

Quick Tip - Protect your pet against Cheat Grass and Foxtail!
As these plants dry out and the barbed seed pods begin to scatter, this can mean trouble for pets who get them caught in paws, eyes nostrils and embedded in fur and skin. Learn what what to watch for and how to prevent problems.

Quick Tip for itch relief - oatmeal shampoo
If your pet suffers from inhalant allergies or an itchy skin condition, a gentle oatmeal shampoo may be beneficial. It is important to visit your veterinarian to address the root cause of the itchiness and to reduce secondary problems due to scratching, chewing, and licking. An oatmeal-based shampoo is often a welcome addition to most "itch...

Is Benadryl® safe to give to my pet?
Benadryl® is a commonly used drug in human medicine. Can it also be used for allergic reactions in pets? This is a common question for many pet owners. This FAQ offers general information about Benedryl; as with any pet-specific information, the only correct answer is to check with your veterinarian.

Clean out that medicine cabinet - safely dispose of expired medications
Time flies, and it is easy to "save this medication for later" only to find it is a few years out of date when you check it again. Learn why you should not used expired medications for your pet (or you) and how to safely dispose of old medications.

What is the pancreas, and why is it needed?
Most everyone has heard the anatomical term "pancreas", but just what is the pancreas, anyway? What is the function of the pancreas, and what happens when it isn't working properly? Find out the answers to these questions and more in this FAQ.

My pet is terrified of the vet. What are some tips to help my pet?
Many times pet owners put off going to the vet because their pet gets very stressed, or in some cases, agressive, when faced with the carrier, the car ride and the veterinary office. If the visit involves the difficult decision about putting a pet to sleep (euthanasia), many pet owners want to avoid the unfamiliar or stressful time at the veterinary office. Here are some tips to help reduce veterinary office stress.

Canine Physiology and Anatomy Facts
What is a "normal" body temperature for your dog? How many teeth do dogs have as puppies and adults? What is the normal heart rate ranges? Find out the answers to these questions and more in this article.

What to expect after your pet's dental or surgical procedure
Most veterinarians send home printed handouts after an anesthetic procedure detailing the pet's post-procedure care. This is helpful because in the busy discharge time of most clinics, coupled with excitement at seeing their pet, many owners don't hear all of the details or think of questions until after they are home. This article discusses general post-procedure care. Please call your veterinarian with specific questions about your pet's recovery.

My Dog's Teeth Are Worn Down. Should I Be Concerned?
This FAQ looks at a common problem, especially for dogs: worn down teeth. What causes teeth to wear, and what should you do about worn down teeth in your pet?

My 8 month old puppy has two sets of "fangs" on top - is this a problem?
Like humans, dogs and cats have baby (deciduous) teeth that are replaced by permanent teeth as they mature. In some cases, the animal will gain the permanent tooth but fail to lose the baby tooth, resulting in what is termed a "retained deciduous tooth". Find out what to do about this condition in this FAQ.

Why is my dog is licking his paws?
Dogs licking their paws is a common complaint. Is this a medical problem or a behavioral one? How can I stop this often annoying activity? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this FAQ.

What are the signs seen with a urinary tract infection?
Urinary problems are commonly seen in dogs and cats. Symptoms can range from "obviously sick" to very few signs seen, depending on the length and severity of infection. Being familiar with possible warning signs could help save your pet's life. Learn more in this FAQ entry.

Dealing with guilt -- did I do everything I could?
Pets depend on us for food and shelter and cannot directly tell us how they feel, so when something happens to our pet (i.e. illness, accident, death), the feelings of "letting our pet down" often turn to feelings of guilt and anger or denial. What can be done to ease the guilt when we are feeling low? Read this FAQ for some tips on dealing with...

What is a "reverse sneeze"?
Reverse sneezing is a fairly common respiratory event seen in dogs (rarely cats) that, while harmless, can be quite frightening for dog owners to witness. Find out what happens during reverse sneezing and what some possible causes are in this FAQ.

Where is the thyroid gland and what does it do?
Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in dogs and cats (humans, too). Dogs with thyroid disease are more commonly hypothyroid (underactive gland) and cats with thyroid disease are more commonly hyperthyroid (overactive gland). This article discusses thyroid anatomy, common conditions and treatment options for dogs and cats with thyroid disease.

Why does my pet itch and scratch so much?
Pets itch, scratch, bite, and lick themselves for many reasons. Some of the more common itch-inciting causes include: skin parasites, bacterial or fungal skin infections, stress or boredom, contact irritants and inhalant allergies. This FAQ examines inhalant allergies, otherwise known as atopy.

Is my pet acting this way due to old age or is he sick?
Changes happen as pets age, similar to the changes seen as people age. Sight and hearing may be diminished, pets may sleep more, and so on. These are expected changes. However, people often miss potentially serious signs of illness in their pets by writing off symptoms as "just old age" when a veterinary exam is in order. This FAQ outlines what...

Tips and tools for home dental care for pets
Now that your pet has been examined by your vet and the teeth have been professionally cleaned (if necessary), what's next? These tips will help...

Good Grooming: A Matter of Life and Health
Good grooming isn't just for looks -- keeping your pet groomed is important for overall health, too. Learn why "good grooming" is more than brushing your pet's coat -- it is an healthy way to view your pet's home care and prevent costly (and often unnecessary) trips to the vet's office.

Is this post abodominal (spay) surgery lump "normal"?
A question that is commonly asked after a routine spay surgery is: "should I be concerned about the lump in the incision area?" This is especially true for cats. Is a post-operative swelling "normal" or cause for concern? This FAQ cannot offer a diagnosis or treatment, but will point out some common findings and when a call to your vet is warranted.

Make sure your pet gets the correct medications while you are away
Pet owners get in a routine with their pets, and it becomes automatic to give vitamins, arthritis medications, and any other reqularly required treatments. Here is a quick tip to ensure the routine continues if your pet is in a kennel or under a petsitter's care.

What is a histiocytoma?
The appearance of a raised, hairless and bright red "angry" looking skin lump on a young dog is characteristic of a histiocytoma. Is it cancerous? Is this something to be worried about? Read this FAQ to find out more about histiocytomas.

My dog's tail is painful and he can't wag it - what happened?
Your otherwise healthy dog comes in from the backyard, a swim or a day playing with dog friends and you are shocked to find that he can't lift his tail all of the way. What happened? Is this an emergency? Read this FAQ to find out more about this fairly common tail occurrence of large breed dogs.

My neighbor's dog had GME. What does this mean, and what is the cause?
The acronym GME stands for Granulomatous MeningoEncephalomyelitis, a disease of the brain and spinal cord. Read this FAQ to learn about common symptoms and prognosis for this disease.

My pet is needs to be seen by a vet, but is afraid of the car. What should I do?
Sometimes pet owners are unsure if they should take their pet to the vet. Other times, they know that their pet needs to be seen by their vet, but worry that the car trip stress will make their pet worse. IF your pet is truly sick or injured, the need to be seen as soon as possible outweighs the unpleasantness of the car ride. Here are some tips to help determine when a vet visit is necessary.

Do those "doggie breath mints" at the pet food store really work?
If your pet has bad breath, will those "doggie breath mints" really help? First thing to consider is why is the breath bad? A trip to the veterinarian is in order first to rule out dental or gum disease.

What Is Kennel Cough, And How Can I Protect My Dog?
Most people have heard of "kennel cough", but what are the signs seen? Is the disease serious? How can I protect my pet? Learn these answers and more in this FAQ.

Canine Parasites
Parasites come in many sizes, shapes and levels of "severity" for our pets. This collection of parasites are those commonly found on dogs and other species, sometimes affecting humans (called a zoonotic disease).

Senior Dog Foods
As our dogs get older, their dietary needs change. They don't need as many calories as a younger dog, and may need some help with joint health and weight management. The definition of "senior dog" varies greatly with size and breed, but the general rule of thumb is dogs older than 7 or 8 years of age (older for small dogs, younger for large ones).

Have you switched your dog to a senior diet? How did you decide on this brand? What do you like about this food, and do you think it helps your dog?See submissions

Prescription and Special Needs Diets
Has your vet prescribed a special diet for your pet to lose weight, maintain kidney or urinary health, joint health or to help with allergies? Perhaps you researched a special diet for your dog on your own. Please tell us about your dog's special dietary needs and what food(s) best help keep your pet in the best of health.

Dog Treats and Snacks
Just like humans, dog treats and snacks are becoming healthier. Smart consumers know that calorie and sugar filed snacks contribute to obesity and a host of other problems. Thank goodness we now have many snacks and treats to choose from for our dogs. Some snacks are "just because" and some are used as training aids. What snacks does your dog...See submissions

Stinky Pets

Bad odors in dogs and cats may indicate a health problem such as dental disease, anal sac abscess, infected ears, or a hot spot. In other cases, a bad odor may simply indicate that the pet needs a bath. Learn to smell the difference and visit your vet when needed.

Dog Food User Reviews

Knowing what to feed is the "best" food to feed dogs at each life stage is a very common question. Is there a best food? What if your dog has special dietary needs? We are lucky in that there is a huge variety of pet foods to select from at this time and lots of ways to make pet foods at home.

How did you select your dog's food? Are you happy with the cost and seeing health benefits for your dog? Please share your reviews of your dog's favorite (or not so favorite) foods and treats.

Daily Dog Eats
Pet food is always a hot topic. People want to know what to feed their pets (kibble, canned, raw or home cooked), learn about special diets for weight loss, seniors or prescription situations and be aware of pet food recall alerts. In this review, please share with us your favorite "regular" dog food for healthy active dogs.See submissions

Dog Toys and Training Aids
Toys are a great way to interact with our dogs. Toys are used for exercise, training, and for play. All toys are not created equal though; our pets have preferences and it is important to choose safe toys that are age and size appropriate for your pet. What are your favorite dog toys and why? Please share with other viewers your top picks for...

Dog Neuter Surgery
Enter the operating room and see a canine castration, more commonly known as dog neuter surgery. This procedure requires general anesthesia maintained with inhalation (gas) anesthetic. Many veterinarians also give IV fluids, monitor heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, oxygen saturation levels, and give medications to control pain during this surgery. This photo gallery focuses on the surgery steps - speak to your vet for specific anesthesia and anesthetic monitoring protocols.

Why (and what) is my senior dog "leaking"?
Many dog owners have been startled to find a wet spot on the floor or bed after a pet gets up after a nap. The dog is usually feeling fine otherwise and may not seem to notice the leakage. Learn more about this common senior canine finding.

My senior dog is drinking lots of water. Is it just old age?
No matter what age your pet is, a noticeable increase in water intake (drinking) or urination often means there is an underlying medical problem. Also, a change in urinary habits, such as urinating in the house or where the pet sleeps, increased urge to urinate, or very dilute urine needs to be evaluated as soon as possible. One exception for...

Urinary Problems in Cats
Cats are well-known for their "urinary issues" -- spraying, marking, urinary tract infections and urethral obstructions. These events may happen once or multiple times, a singular event or related. It is always most important to rule out a medical problem before assuming that your cat is just being "bad" or upset about something. Urinary...

Chocolate Toxicity - What Makes Chocolate Toxic To Dogs?
Just like their human counterparts, pets, especially dogs, can crave the delicious goodness of chocolate. While recent studies have shown that chocolate may be beneficial for our health, it is important to know that chocolate can be toxic, and sometimes even fatal, for animals.

Urinary Problems in Dogs
Urinary problems in dogs are common. Signs can range from barely noticeable to unable to urinate (this is an emergency). Some urinary problems are the result of other diseases, such as diabetes with increased urination as the most common first sign. Other problems may be the result of stones or tumors in the bladder, causing abnormal urination...

Lily Toxicity in Cats and Dogs
Lilies are bold, beautiful, fragrant and... poisonous. Especially for cats. Lilies are popular choices for holiday bouquets and are the favorites of many gardeners. What makes lilies poisonous is unknown, but it is known that the toxin deadly. Cats and possibly dogs suffer from kidney failure after ingesting even tiny amounts of this plant and flower. Learn more about this family of flowering plants, and if you have cats in your household, it may just be better to admire this beauty from afar.

Lily Toxicity in Cats and Dogs
Lilies are bold, beautiful, fragrant and... poisonous. Especially for cats. Lilies are popular choices for holiday bouquets and are the favorites of many gardeners. What makes lilies poisonous is unknown, but it is known that the toxin deadly. Cats and possibly dogs suffer from kidney failure after ingesting even tiny amounts of this plant and flower. Learn more about this family of flowering plants, and if you have cats in your household, it may just be better to admire this beauty from afar.

Share your tips, stories and opinions
The opinions, comments and tips from viewers greatly enrich this site. See what viewers have to say on a variety of veterinary and pet health topics, and add in your comments as well. Do you have tips on how you saved money with pets? Has your pet eaten anything particularly icky lately? Are you considering a career as a veterinary technician and wonder what the salary is like? Learn and contribute your knowledge to these subjects and more.

Can You Spay A Dog or Cat In Heat (Estrus)?
A viewer asked: "Can a female dog in heat be spayed?" Technically the answer is yes, but your results may vary, as many vets prefer to wait until the heat cycle is over. Read this FAQ to learn why and know why the costs are usually a little higher when spaying a dog in heat.

Signs of Cancer in Dogs
Cancer is an unfortunately common disease of dogs. For dogs over 10 years of age, approximately 50% of deaths are cancer-related. Like humans, there are many types of cancers and many clinical signs seen. The causes of these cancers are largely unknown, making prevention difficult. Being aware of possible signs of cancer in pets will help...

Selecting Effective Flea And Tick Control
Farnam Pet Products helps you select the best product to fight fleas, ticks, and other pet parasites -- on your pet and in your home.

Veterinary Q & A: Limping and Lameness
Common scenarios involving lameness and injury in dogs and cats presented to help viewer determine when to call the veterinarian.

Tick Tips - What to do with that tick that you just removed from your pet
Ticks are notorious vectors for a variety of potentially very serious diseases; the most common one being Lyme disease. Learn what to do with that tick once it is safely removed from your pet or from you.

Veterinary Q & A: Seizures in Pets
Seizures are often scary to witness. What should you do if you suspect that your pet has had a seizure? What are the treatment options and prognosis? When are seizures an emergency? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this FAQ article.

Do dogs and cats get poison ivy?
Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac are found in various combinations in wooded areas throughout North America (except Alaska and Hawaii). All of these plants contain a resin oil that for some individuals is highly allergenic. This oil is absorbed rapidly through the skin, producing intensely itchy and blistered lesions in susceptible individuals. Do dogs and cats get poison ivy? Can they spread poison ivy to humans? Learn more about these plants and pets in this FAQ.

Getting Rid Of Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac on Pets
Dogs and cats do not suffer the allergenic effects of poison ivy, sumac or oak like humans do, but they can transmit the oil of these plants to humans on their hair. This means that your pet can bring you poison ivy (and related) even though you haven't been in the woods. The oil responsible for the rashes and blisters that humans get is very hardy and long-lived. Here are some tips for getting rid of it on your pets.

Why does my pet scoot?
Both dogs and cats have anal sacs that may become impacted or infected if not emptying properly. This causes itching, scooting and pain. Severe cases may abscess and rupture. Learn the signs of anal sac problems and how to keep your pet comfortable and scoot-free.

Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac - 6 Things You Should Know
The questions of if pets can get poison ivy or if they can spread poison ivy (and related plants) to their human family are common. Here are 5 things you should know about poison ivy, oak and sumac and pets.

Poison Ivy - My Pet's Encounter With Poison Ivy
A common question on this site is if pets can "get" poison ivy. Not in the sense that humans do, with a intensely itchy, blister-filled rash like humans, but dogs and cats can transmit poison ivy, oak and sumac. This happens because the allergenic (toxic) part of these plants is an oil called urushiol and it is easily spread by fur, clothing and other surfaces. Has your pet helped spread poison ivy/oak/sumac to human family members? Please share your story and any poison ivy tips you may have.

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac and Pets

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac are common plants throughout the US. Reactions in humans range from none to severe. The questions of if pets can get poison ivy or if they can spread poison ivy (and related plants) to their human family are common. Here are resources and tips about poison ivy, oak and sumac and keeping pets and people safe.

Veterinary Q & A: Spay Operation in Dogs and Cats
Veterinary Q & A - Spaying (ovariohysterectomy) in Dogs and Cats - learn about spay surgery in dogs and cats

Veterinary Q & A - Neutering (Castration) in Dogs and Cats
Veterinary Q & A - Neutering (Castration) in Dogs and Cats

Quick Facts About Porcupines, Quills and Pets
Pocupines and skunks are primarily nocturnal animals that unleash nasty surprises on unsuspecting dogs and their humans. Skunk spray is mostly annoying, although may have health effects at close range. Porcupines, on the other hand, have a much more serious weapon: quills. Porcupine quills are commonly found on the muzzle, face, head and...

Tell us about your dog's experience with porcupine quills
Porcupines and dogs are never a good mix. Quills have one-way barbs and may work themselves inside the body, causing severe problems and even death in some cases. It is always best to call your veterinarian for cases like this; removed quickly under anesthesia reduces the chances of quills working in deeper. Please share your dog's story of meeting up with a porcupine and how things turned out.See submissions

Dog Toy Reviews
The variety and number of dog toys available now is amazing - something for every dog. Not all dog toys are created equal, though. Safety and appropriateness are the two top concerns, as any veterinarian will tell you, retrieving a toy stuck in the stomach or intestines happens, even with the "best" toys. Selecting toys appropriate for your dog's size and personality and providing supervised play time is important. What are your favorite dog toys, and why?See submissions

Firework Toxicity
Firework and thunder noise phobias and anxieties may cause dogs and cats to tremble, drool and pace. In more serious cases, animals have been known...

Dental Care Tips and Tools - Share your home dental care tips and tools for...
Dental Care Tips and Tools - Share your home dental care tips and tools for dog and cat dental health

Pet Dental Care Tips and Tools
It is always best to start with a visit to your veterinarian and a professional dental cleaning if needed. Your veterinarian can show you the best...

Stinky Pets - Tell us about your stinky pet
Bad odors in dogs and cats may indicate a health problem such as dental disease, anal sac abscess, infected ears, or a hot spot. In other cases, a bad odor may simply indicate that the pet needs a bath. Learn to smell the difference and visit your vet when needed.

Zinc Toxicosis in Dogs and Cats from Eating Pennies and Other Zinc-Containing...
Zinc Toxicosis in Dogs and Cats from Eating Pennies and Other Zinc-Containing Items

Hot Feet: Protect Your Dog's Feet from Getting Burned on Hot Pavement
Dog's feet and pads are tough, right? Most people are aware that foot pads can be injured by stepping on something sharp, but what about something...

Tips for Exercising with Dogs and Cats
In a 2010 study on pet obesity , only 35% of dogs were considered to be "normal" weight. Of the remainder, 5% were underweight and a full 60%...

Adoption Resources - all about dog, cat and other pet adoptions
The struggling economy and rising costs mean more animals than ever are in need of homes. Learn where to find local adoption resources, online adoption options, and how you can help animals in need -- even if you can't adopt at this time. Read adoption success stories to know what to expect when you add a new pet to your home. This helps ensure...

Will Littermates ... Mate?
This question has come up for both dogs and cats. Viewers want to know if once littermates reach puberty, will they ... mate? Or will they "know" they are brother and sister and refrain?

Halloween Hazards and Pets - Keep Your Pet Safe
There are many pet hazards related to this October holiday -- some are well-known (i.e. the dangers of chocolate overindulgence), and some aren't. Learn what to be aware of to protect your pet and stay safe this year!

Halloween Costumes and Safety Concerns for Pets
The selection of Halloween costumes for pets gets bigger and better each year. There are definitely some cute and funny costumes, but I always wonder if they are safe - can any buttons or baubles be chewed off and swallowed? What about ribbons or stringy decorations? Cats are well known for suffering from "linear foreign bodies" - when the...

Should Pets Wear Clothes and Costumes?
Pet costumes are everywhere this year, and not just at Halloween. My first thought is always: if it is safe for the pet? Will they get tangled? Will they ingest all or part of the item? Is the piece constructed out of non-toxic material? Maybe I just worry too much, but here are some things to consider for the comfort and safety of your pet.

Pet Life Jackets
I have mentioned pet life jackets before on this site as they relate to overall safety in the summer and around water. This article examines pet life jackets more closely and will hopefully help pet owners decide if a life jacket is a good idea for their pet(s). I've decided that they are a great idea for my dog, Sophie.

How long are cats in heat for?
Unlike dogs, cats do not cycle only two times a year (on average), they go into heat often if not spayed. Also unlike their canine counterparts, cats are induced ovulators -- they do not ovulate unless they are mated. Find out more in this FAQ on feline estrus.

Understanding Euthanasia
Having to make the decision to end a pet's life is never easy. It is a subject that many people do not want to talk about until they have to, but then it becomes a decision made under emotional stress. When faced with this difficult decision, not knowing about the procedure can create worry and fear. The purpose of this article is to explore...

Pet Loss & Grief
Today, with pets living longer, healthier lives and enjoying such an integral position in the human family, grief over losing a pet is a serious concern. Thankfully, fellow pet lovers, veterinary schools and counseling professionals now offer a wide variety of resources for those experiencing the pain of losing a dearly loved pet. This article...

Seizures and Epilepsy in Dogs and Cats - living with a pet who has seizures
Seizures may be caused by numerous things: poisons, skull injury, brain tumor, viral and bacterial infections, congenital malformations, heat stroke, parasites, fungal infections, low blood sugar (diabetics), and so on. By doing a physical exam and blood work, most causes can be eliminated. Seizures where a cause cannot be determined are termed...

Urinary Tract Infections and Urinary Behavior Problems In Dogs and Cats
Urinary tract infections in pets are common. Many of the signs of urinary problems for dogs and cats are similar. While both dogs and cats have the potential to become obstructed ("blocked"), this life-threatening situation is more common in male cats.

Canine Alopecia - Joey the Balding Dog
Guest author Richard Young DVM, DABVP, CCRT shares this interesting case report of Joey, a deaf terrier mix who was losing his hair. It was a very symmetrical pattern of baldness (alopecia) in an otherwise very healthy dog. Dr. Young was puzzled about this case, so he referred him to a veterinary dermatologist. What they found was not only...

Recognizing Arthritis in Dogs
Arthritis is common in dogs. Canine arthritis can be quite painful. Being able to recognize the symptoms of arthritis in your dog is important.

Cropped Ears
Ear cropping is banned in many countries but still allowed in the United States. Learn more about this elective, cosmetic surgery performed on some breeds of dogs.

Diabetes Mellitus in the Dog
Diabetes mellitus can affect dogs and causes an increase in the blood sugar level that usually needs to be managed with insulin. Learn more about the causes and symptoms of canine diabetes mellitus.

Diagnosing Canine and Feline Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is common in both dogs and cats. Learn about the different diagnostic tests that are used to diagnose canine and feline diabetes mellitus.

Dog Days of Summer - Does Coat Color Make A Difference?
A viewer asks: "Does the color of the coat of a dog make much difference in the dog-days of summer?" Learn the answers to this interesting hot weather question and the origins of the term, "dog days of summer".

Parvovirus Infection in Dogs
Parvovirus infection is a serious disease that affects the gasstrointestinal or cardiac systems of dogs. Parvo is a highly contagious and often sudden viral disease; puppies are particularly susceptible. Learn about the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Parvo in this article.

Foods Toxic to Pets - Macadamia Nuts
Macadamia nuts are toxic to some dogs. Like raisins and grapes (also toxic), the toxin and mechanism of action are not known at this time. Another similarity is that sensitivity to macadamia nuts appears to vary between dogs as does the amount of nuts that cause a toxic reaction. Learn about this common food toxicity, the signs seen and what to...

Skunks - what you need to know if your pet has been sprayed by a skunk
Skunks normally mind their own business, but sometimes they are provoked to spray by an unsuspecting curious pet. What do they spray, why do they spray, and how do you get rid of the odor are common questions answered here. Also, is the spray toxic? Find out what you need to do for post-skunk first aid for your pets to be safe.

Hot Spot Prevention Tips
Hot spots, also known as pyotraumatic dermatitis, are areas of skin inflammation due to self-trauma from chewing, licking and biting. This causes damage to the skin, leading to infection (dermatitis), which in turn causes pain, sensitivity and more itching. Some dogs are more prone to hot spots than others. In addition to treating the problem at...

Demodicosis - Canine Demodex Mite
Demodex mites are microscopic normal inhabitants of dog skin. The mites are few in number and do not cause skin or health problems. In some cases though, the mites can take over, leading to a condition commonly called "mange" or demodicosis. Learn about the types of mange and various treatment options for this skin parasite.

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