Spraying is a behavioral issue; utilized by cats (male and female) to communicate. When a cat sprays, urine is usually, but not always, released on vertical surfaces. The spraying posture differs from normal urination; when spraying, the cat backs up to the wall or other vertical surface, the tail extended and often twitching rapidly. Spraying is an undesirable behavior in the home that can be managed and hopefully stopped after medical causes have been ruled out. Your veterinarian or a veterinary behaviorist will determine the best course of action for your pet and household.
In contrast, a cat with a medical problem of the urinary tract will assume a normal elimination posture and void urine on horizontal surfaces. They may also urinate in the sink, in the laundry, or other places besides the litter box.
Inflammation and infection of the urinary tract is painful and, when crystals are present, potentially deadly for male cats, who have a smaller diameter urethra. Medical treatment is essential.
Question from a viewer: "Do you know what the symptoms of a cat having a urinary tract infection is? My cat just started peeing everywhere in our house."
Even though this is a question about a cat, these top 5 signs seen in cats are also relevant to dogs (except the litter box mentions, but you get the idea).
Top 5 Signs of Urinary Tract Troubles
1. Urinating out of the litter box / Having accidents in the house
Cats may associate pain with the litter box and find other places to urinate. There are many behavioral reasons (the cat doesn't like a new or strongly scented litter, stress, mult-cat household issues, etc.) for this problem to be seen with cats, but a medical problem — urinary tract infection, inflammation or blockage — must always be ruled out first.
Senior cats, especially those that suffer from arthritis, may have difficulty getting into or out of the litter box, and find other, more "accessible" places to urinate. In this case, finding a low, large box that is easy to use may eliminate inappropriate urination. Urinary and kidney infections are common in older cats however, so as always, a medical problem should be ruled out first.
It should be noted that cats may avoid the litter box after being treated for a urinary (or bowel) issue because they associate that box (or litter, or...) with the discomfort of the previous illness. A thorough washing of the liter box or a new litter box and fresh litter may be needed to start over.
Dogs that experience urine leakage or have urinary accidents in the house (forgetting housetraining) should also be checked out for a urinary tract infection or incontinence.
2. Urinating more frequently
Often trying to urinate so frequently that very little or no urine is produced. This repeated straining and squatting may be mistaken as constipation, which is another condition that warrants a visit to the vet's office.
Important: not being able to urinate could indicate a partial or complete blockage of the urethra, particularly in male dogs and cats, and is a life-threatening emergency. Minutes and hours matter. Don’t wait – call your vet.
3. Pain or blood seen upon urination
Crying, yowling, or in pain when picked up (abdominal area). These would seem like obvious problems that need to be seen immediately, but I receive questions about what can be done for pet’s bloody or painful urination at home. Answer: see your vet as soon as possible!
4. Excessive licking of "private parts"
Self explanatory. Sometimes the licking can cause secondary irritation, too.
5. Lethargy, not eating, "cranky" behavior
These signs may be seen with a variety of diseases, and should always be checked out at first notice of your pet not being him/herself.